Tuberculosis is a leading cause of infectious mortality, and the leading cause of death among people living with HIV (PLHIV). The number of tuberculosis cases is indeed decreasing very slowly on a global level, with a decrease between 2000 and 2017 at a mortality rate of 29% among non-HIV-infected persons, and 44% among PLWHA. However, in 2017, 10 million people developed tuberculosis and 1.3 million died. More than 95% of tuberculosis cases and deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. In 2017 we estimated at 900 000 the number of new cases of tuberculosis in PLWHA, 72% of them living in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the progress made in access to antiretroviral treatment, tuberculosis caused about 300 000 deaths among people living with HIV in 2017, i.e. one third of all deaths due to HIV.
Children and PLWHA are particularly affected by tuberculosis, with around one million new cases and 210,000 deaths in 2015. The vast majority of these deaths are due to lack of access to treatment due to underdiagnosis and underreporting. In 2014, only 359,000 (36%) cases of childhood tuberculosis were reported to the World Health Organisation (WHO). This low reporting rate is probably due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulty of self-expectoration, resulting in the poor diagnostic performance of existing tests.
Solthis is currently involved in the TB-Speed project, which aims to improve screening for tuberculosis in children.
Our goal over the next few years will be to develop comprehensive approaches to tuberculosis control as part of the End TB strategy. Our efforts will be concentrated on 3 main areas:
screening for tuberculosis in children (TB-Speed project)
screening for tuberculosis among PLWHA, and better coordination between HIV and tuberculosis programs.
implementation of preventive tuberculosis treatment in populations most at risk.
“Managing Risk in Fragile States: Putting Health First!
Optimising the Efficiency of the Global Fund's Grants”
This evidence-based report is the result of a work over several months, including 4 missions (Guinea, Mali, Niger and Sierra Leone) and interviews with 140 stakeholders. Through this work, we identified bottlenecks in the implementation of the Global Fund's grants in the field, showing that the Global Fund's Risk Management Policy is not well-adapted to fragile states. The additional safeguard measures which have been put in place by the Secretariat after the investigations of the Office of the Inspector General were meant to mitigate the financial risks and to reassure donors. However, experiences in challenging operating environments clearly show that these measures are mainly focused on financial risks and have caused significant malfunctions that jeopardise both the impact and the sustainability of the programmes. In order to make progress and to cope with the challenges specific to fragile states, we think it is now time for the Board members and the donors of the Global Fund to opt for an ambitious and innovative policy, which would put financial risk at its proper place: behind risks to public health. The main recommendations we are addressing in the report aim to place the public health risk at the centre of the mechanism, by:
Improving the balance between the analysis and the management of the different risks.
Simplifying and clarifying the control procedures: limit the number of contractors and the levels of validation.
Defining indicators or objectives for terminating additional safeguard measures to encourage appropriation and capacity building.
Investigating the possibility of an increased presence of the Global Fund in the field, by missions of several weeks or several months.
Adapting the indicators and procedures of performance-based funding and accountability measures to fragile states.
The Scientific Days, organized by the ULSS and CMT, in partnership with Solthis and GIP Esther, took place on 2 and 3 October 2009 in Niamey in the presence of Professor Katlama (Solthis President), Prof. Brucker (Treasurer Solthis and CEO of Esther) but also of Dr Kassi (Ivory Coast) and Professor Toure (Senegal). More than 250 physicians, health professionals, representatives of the fight against HIV, tuberculosis in Niger attended these days. Many topics on Chess therapeutic Opportunistic Infections, PMTCT, Accidents of exposure to blood and the delegation of tasks were discussed.
HIV/AIDS care and follow-up on a national scale in low resource settings: experience of the Niger Initiative on Antiretroviral Access (INAARV), NigerAuthor(s) : M. Ide, Y. Madec, M. Boubacar, E. Adehossi, C. Dezé, GM. Lawal, O. Amadou, S. Diallo, C. Pizzocolo, IA. Touré, S. Mamadou, C. Katlama and the National Technical Committee Download the presentationPilot cell comprehensive care: a multidisciplinary service orientation and listening PHAs, NigerAuthor(s) : A. Alzouma, C. Dezé, B. Sabo, M. Bako, S. Maman, I. Mourtala, M. Goundara, F. Djermakoye, M. Ide, F. Aeberhard Download the presentationThe impact of prior recourse to traditional medicine on the out-of-pocket expenditure of HIV/AIDS patients in NigerAuthor(s): S. Walker, S. Tchiombiano, A. Maiga, R. Hassane, M. Idé, AH. Souna, V. Bignon, O. Weil, L. Pizarro Download the presentationIncidence and risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) in HIV patients on ART, Niger Author(s): A. Foucher, Y. Madec, S. Diallo, Z. Thiousso, I. Dillé, S. Gambo, HA. Souna, A. Oumarou, A. Manou, GM. Laoual, Al. Touré, C. Pizzocolo, L. Pizarro, A. Fontanet Download the presentationDecentralized access to triple therapy and viral load monitoring in West Africa (Mali)Author(s) : A. Akondé, Y. Madec, AB. Dicko, I. Haidarra, I. Katile, B. Diarra, M. Kye, A. Doumbia, C. Pizzocolo, C. Katlama and the Segou Medical Technical Committee Download the presentationA method of HAART decentralization in rural areas: Solthis' experience in Segou (Mali)Author(s) : P. Teisseire, A. Akondé, C. Pizzocolo, S. Calmettes, S. Dalglish, N. Bodo, L. Pizarro Download the presentationPrevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in a rural setting : the experience of the Segou region in MaliAuthor(s) : CD. Traoré, A.akondé, T. Samake, T. Traoré, Y. Coulibaly, O. Coulibaly, A. Sidibé, D. Germanaud, Z. Traoré, A. Maiga, AG. Marcelin, C. Pizzocolo, C. Katlama and the Segou Medical Technical Committee Download the presentationAppraisal of treatment modification in HIV patient follow-up in the region of Segou (Mali)Author(s) : J. Landier, A. Akondé, C. Pizzocolo, I. Haidara, M. Drabo, L. Pizarro, A. Fontanet, C. Katlama, Y. Madec Download the presentationEtude virologique chez des sujets VIH-1 suivis à MadagascarAuthor(s) : F. Lamontagne, S. Andriantsimietry, ML. Chaix, JP. Viard, M. Randria, J. Nely, S. Randriamampionona, C. Aguilar, S. Royer, C. Pizzocolo, LR. Razanakolona, C. Rouzioux Download the presentation